Contact Welding Methods

For welding with pressure is contact welding, which uses the heat released in contact welded parts during the passage of electric current. Distinguished point, butt, seam and embossed contact welding. The main methods of contact welding developed in the late xix century. In 1887, nn Benardos received a patent for methods of spot and seam welding between carbon electrodes. Later, when the electrodes are made of copper and its alloys, these methods of welding steel core. Resistance welding is the leading mechanized welding methods in the automotive industry in the sheet-molded compound body structure car. Butt-welded joints connecting rails, joints of pipelines. Seam welding is used in the manufacture of thin-walled vessels.

Projection welding – the most high- method of welding fittings for the construction of reinforced concrete structures. Capacitor resistance welding is widely used in electronic industry in the manufacture of components and chips. One of the most developing trends in the welding industry – wide use of mechanized and automatic welding. It is as mechanization and automation of welding processes themselves (ie, the transition from manual labor welder to mechanized), and a comprehensive mechanization and automation, encompassing all activities associated with the manufacture of welded structures (procurement, assembly, etc.) and the establishment of stream and automatic production lines. With the development of technology there is a need welding of various thicknesses of different materials, in connection with the constantly expanding range of species and used welding methods. Today while the workpiece thickness from a few micrometers (in microelectronics) to tens of centimeters or even meters (heavy engineering). Along with the structural carbon and low alloy steels are increasingly have to weld special steels, light alloys and titanium-based alloys, molybdenum, chromium, zirconium and other metals, as well as dissimilar materials.

Country Houses

Most people have an idea of the lifts elevators, but difficult to imagine what the lifts and on what grounds they can be distinguished. Lifting equipment, which will be discussed, at present receives the increasing popularity. And although it is called economy-class equipment, it is very reliable, easy to use and maintenance of hoisting equipment. By all the usual terminology lifting devices offered by us, can be divided and described as follows: Cargo lifts Lifts small freight elevators personal special lifts, in turn, hoists can be divided into mining lifts, cantilever lifts and inclined elevators. The cargo lifts, as well as a small freight elevator, can be attributed, and service lifts for restaurants, cafes, hotels, cultural and entertainment centers, etc. Small freight elevator capacity up to 250 kg of coal mine enforcement in particular are attractive because they do not require registration in the rtn, as well as all the above platforms. Personal lift is essentially a lift for a country house (cottage), you can call it cottage lift, but it is sometimes called a lift home or flats. Made a personal lift only an individual project based on technical specifications of the owner and is intended for personal use. Special podemnikipo rope suspension system, linking stand-platform, device drive protective fencing and other features are fundamentally different from existing versions of execution lifts.

Disk Chippers

Appointment chippers – wood waste processing and manufacturing of wood chips. The raw material can serve virtually any wood wastes: the branches of trees, forest technology, slabs, cut-off, the marriage of products and etc. Chippers are made in fixed configurations for installation on the premises and Ammunition for processing waste directly on the forest plot. Power chippers vary considerably and can be from 3 to 1000 horsepower. The most common type of chippers are the disc. They have the most simple design, based on – a metal disc, where they got their name.

Diameter disk is usually tens of centimeters. On the drive set the cutting knives. Their number varies, on average, from 2 to 6. The principle of the machines next. Into the input box is supplied raw materials. It falls on the blades, delayed and chopped. Angle grinding chipper knives provides a mechanism . Feeding is carried out either manually or by hydraulic rollers.

When using manual feed timber falls on knives through the title effect. However, when using gidropodachi chips is a more homogeneous fractional composition. It is necessary to consider separately the grain size distribution of wood chips. It will not be fully uniform and will include chips ranging in size from 6-8 to 20 and more, see For more shallow chips to use machine 2 of the series (drum chippers), which are considerably more expensive. There are different options for the drive of these machines. For stationary operation at the production site used cars powered by electric motor. There are mobile versions of chippers. Above all, this machine-PTO tractor. They are mounted on tractor three-point support, they also move. Can be used on forest plots and in the cleaning of parks have public utilities. Occasionally there are cars driven by their own diesel. However, because of their prices are not yet widely available.

Technology Champagne At Ultra-high Concentration Of Yeast

Considerable scientific and practical interest in problems of physiology and metabolism of cultural distribution of yeast from secondary fermentation, and subsequent exposure of sparkling wines that are the based in biotechnological processes. Particular attention is given to the theory and practice of using immobilized yeast cells in champagne wine. Results of theoretical and experimental studies used for scientific substantiation of new technology fermentation of champagne wines at super high concentrations of yeast. This technology is widely implemented in the factories of sparkling wines, as Russia and other countries. Developed by scientists and production flow chart of production of sparkling wines in the ultra-high concentrations of yeast is shown in Fig. Application of technology this scheme will allow to obtain homogeneous batches of high quality aged champagne and sparkling wine, a standard in terms of organoleptic characteristics, as well as color and other physical-chemical indicators. According to the scheme of champagne wine materials siphon pump 1 in the apparatus 2, filled with a sorbent made of oak, there is fed yeast wiring at the rate of 3 5 million kletok/sm3. In the same apparatus at a constant reduction temperature up to 3 4 C passes deaeration of wine with their subsequent treatment with cold.

For 5 7 days. after the separation of oxygen from the wine stock is its enrichment of biologically active substances. Wine becomes stable to crystal and protein haze. Then the wine material from the apparatus 2 into two streams: one directed to the apparatus 17 for preparing the tank liquor, which is kept for 10 days.


Performance of this device is not more than 1000 labels per hour. The second step in automating the process labeling – semi-automatic labeling machines. The principle of operation of this machine is that the operator manually puts the product in a special cradle, push the pedal and an automatic gluing labels. Semi-automatic labeling machine operated by one operator, its performance does not exceed 1500 labels per hour. This machine limited in use, may cause the label on the cylindrical and flat packaging, as well as in the groove. And finally, the automatic labeling machines, allow to apply self-adhesive labels for products that moving on the conveyor. Labeler is made and completed on the basis of the problem, which is formulated as follows: the configuration container, the number of stamps affixed. Also need to know multiple answers to the questions of how product gets on the conveyor (previous operation), which will come out with labeling (subsequent operation), whether you want to embed an existing line, or separate standing machine is needed, etc.

The principle of the automatic applicator simple sticker label is due to the inflection carrying base label on the knife, moving packaging captures the sticky edge labels and drags, Next labels are in special units. The machine works from the sensors, one sensor records the flow of packages on the conveyor, another sensor, gathering labels. The software is formed in such a way that the labels are applied, like a certain place on the package with an error of 1 mm. Automatic applicator works for stepper motor at up to 50 m / minute. The principle of the automatic applicator, we considered, then we need them ready labeling machine, as one applicator all the work on the sticker label can not do. Proceed to the acquisition machine, I already wrote that you need to know what perform the task, the machine comes with a designer, there are special nodes that are needed for different types of packaging.

For cylindrical containers used block scroll container, in which bottles, cans, tuba commits rotational motion and thus, there is a complete label on the side surface, and used a block of packaging division, to enforce the separation package, if it comes from a previous surgery groups. For the oval packaging is a block positioning, and clamping the upper conveyor to align the containers on the conveyor belt and fix it before the labeling is necessary when there is a label of two or more labels. Model line labeling machines is enormous, it depends on the problem, by sticking labels on flat containers, prior to the application of two, three, four labels on containers of various configurations. Many labeling machines equipped with printers for printing the most diverse additional information on self-adhesive labels, as well as on the packaging. Of the variety of labeling equipment can always choose a model which will be best suited for your task, but also reasonable to combine price and quality.