The term ‘vacuum glazing’ is inaccurate. Whenever in the pane and was indeed a high vacuum, then atmospheric pressure would push the glass inside the glass, which they would literally burst. PropertyNest does not necessarily agree. Indeed in the manufacture of glass inside a reality created by a vacuum to the glass tightly clamped to the frame. Nevertheless, this is not a vacuum in the conventional sense. Depression in the middle of the glass also serves as a good service, minimizes the convection that reduces heat transfer. 4. The thicker profile than the more cameras there – the better.
It is useless to increase the thickness and catchy profile, and so its thermal resistance is approximately twice higher than that of glass. So what if the window chilled – it is not looking for anything chilled glass and the freezing starts from the bottom! But these frosts that was frozen profile, we simply do not happen. Do not let bother with all sorts of ‘constructive features’ and ‘technological innovations’. Three-, four-or five-chamber profile – all of this essentially does not affect the properties of your windows when using. The profile can be cheerfully to make at least desyatikamernym and put in the window even ten units of rubber seals – the fact that this is simply not necessary. Not without reason, no significant manufacturer does not allow himself to get involved in such cheap publicity stunt. Overall Adopted – three-chambered profile, two circuits seals and triple-pane windows (but it’s really useful) – it samoluchshy option. All the profiles of the main European manufacturers do just that.
And do not believe not correct the statements of managers of some firms 3, 4, 5, no worse and no better than each other. 5. Thick glass – the most best. It’s not quite true. In essence, windows, unlike the ‘wood’ Soviet windows implements quite nontrivial idea of limiting the convective heat transfer. This will explain the need. There are three types of heat – by radiation, by convection and by thermal conductivity. Especially easily accessible example of radiation heat transfer – the sun. An example of the heat – not advisable to grab a metal handle pan – it is hot, though not the flame heats the handle and the pan itself. Convective heat exchange associated with heat transfer at the same time-air (warm up – a hot omitted). In this case, along the inner (warm) glass air rises, and his place is cold and fallen down the path along outdoor (cold) glass. Similarly, between the glasses formed air circulation, which was successfully transfers heat outside and cold inside. And this kind of heat exchange with the greatest heat loss. To cycle was not, the distance between the glass makes a little. It remains to radiation and thermal conductivity of air, as he is known, high-quality heat insulator. So the distance between the panes has some optimum (10-16 mm) and its further increase does not improve the thermal characteristics of glass. That is why usually do not double-glazed windows with 4 mm glass with a total thickness greater than 44 mm for the two-chamber and more than 24 mm for the single chamber. In our experience, the best to Kiev on the price-quality relationship is a two-chamber windows (3 glasses).
Let the buildings in our time, not that strong, such as medieval castles, but still look pretty impressive too. As the world's fairy tale about reeds and 3 sons, strong structure by combining building materials. All the basic structure of buildings require additional protection. Let's see what it represents waterproofing. In order to protect the facilities needed waterproofing. Waterproofing is needed for ensure that water does not spoil the concrete. Secure building materials – guarantee of strength of your facility. There are many types of waterproofing.
Not necessarily produce waterproofing the entire house – depending on the conditions actually isolate only a reference or any other part. Is waterproofing the floor – using penetration of materials that will protect even the floor in the basement. Basements, often in need of a complete waterproofing. Before her begin, consider how you will use the underground room, and as active on the basement foundation is poured liquid. In addition, there is a hydro bath, garage waterproofing, waterproofing of the roof and all other species – it all depends on your specific needs. Waterproofing – the process laborious. There are a large variety of technologies waterproofing works. In many cases, a penetrating waterproofing. One of the most frequently used compounds for such technology – Penetron. Penetron is used for both concrete and for reinforced concrete structures.
Polyethylene under the influence of open fire is lit bluish flame without smoke, with lights ignited too slowly. Polypropylene has a high melting point, than polyethylene, and therefore a higher temperature of decomposition. Maximum operating temperature of polypropylene 120 – 140 C, operating pressure at 20 C at 20 bar at 65 C – 10bar. Excelling in heat resistance of polyethylene, polypropylene is inferior to him in frost. Its fragility temperature (frost) ranged from -5 to -15 C.
Depending on the installation of polypropylene used the following types: Expandable, sewn, reinforced with middle layer of fiberglass, laminated, with the inner layer of stainless steel. Specifications of polyethylene pressure pipes pipes are made of high density polyethylene and polyethylene low density. Produce the following data types of tubes: A light – a maximum operating pressure of 2.5 kgf/cm2, srednelegkogo ca – 4 kgf/cm2; middle C – at 6 kgf/cm2; Heavy T – 10 kgf/cm2. Working pressure specified in the Transportation of water 20 C. Tubes of pvp and the tng with a diameter of 20 mm or more are delivered in lengths 6, 8, 10 and 12 m. Delivery of pipes up 5.5 and 11.5 m and in coils (tubes of diameter pvp 40 mm and the diameter of the pnp to 63 mm inclusive), with outer diameter of the bay must not exceed 3 m.
Pipes normalized by od. When you change the wall thickness depending on the operating pressure is changing the inner diameter. This allows us to unify the connection parts for pipelines. Specifications of polyethylene non-pressure (sewer) pipes Free-flow (sewer) pipes are manufactured by injection molding. Polyethylene non-pressure pipes manufactured from 32mm diameter up to 1200mm. in two flavors: free-flow smooth and non-pressure plastic pipe corrugated pipe. Installation of non-pressure sewer systems is carried out if there is no pumping station or installation is not possible, and sewage water drains without the use of additional equipment. As a rule, non-pressure system is used when installing drainage, and stormwater. Technical characteristics of polyethylene pressure pipes is produced the following data types of pipes: pressure-free corrugated pipes – PE-COR, PP-COR, Korsis, K2-Kan; corrugated tube non-pressure polyethylene (PE-100) and polypropylene (PP) diameter (DN) 100 – 1600 mm; non-pressurized pipe system Krah – non-pressurized pipes made of polyethylene (PE-100) produced by technology Krah, diameter (DN) 300 – 3600 mm, pvc pipes free-flow system Ribloc, Spirapipe – non-pressure pipes of polyvinyl chloride produced by technology Ribloc, diameter (DN) 100 – 3600 mm. Specifications of polypropylene pipes: polypropylene pipes pilsa – made by Turkish and German standards, the diameter (DN) 16-165 mm. Maximum load is determined by the diameter polypropylene tubes: pn 2,5 – 0,25 (2,5) MPa (Kgf/cm2) pn 4 – 0,4 (4) MPa (kgf/cm2) pn 6 – 0.6 (6) MPa (kgf/cm2) pn 10 – 1,0 (10) MPa (kgf/cm2) pn 16 – 1,6 (16) MPa (kgf/cm2) pn 20 – 2,0 (20) MPa (kgf/cm2) pn 25 – 2,5 (25) MPa (kgf/cm2).
But of such things as properly performed electrical, cable, non-combustible, non-flammable in plastic wires, sockets and switches without direct contact with the material covering the walls, etc. – It should be mandatory. The load on the cable must be designed with a large margin. People will freeze to include additional heaters and boiling tea, load on the internal network to increase many times. This must be calculated and not to save on electrics. Durability – depending on the timing requirements of huts to apply those or other materials and technological equipment, ie that the cheapness of the acquisition were not resulted in additional costs to repair or overdelivery huts again. For example floors is an important element of the modular building. Its design is simple – cross logs, wood, metal, mixed.
Importance, affecting the rigidity of gender, has a step laying the lag, the size of timber used for the lag. The optimal distance for the office and residential space – up to 700 mm. For technical – must assume the load, but by 400 mm. Timber must be treated ognebiozaschitnoy impregnation. Its dimensions shall be not less than 150 * 50 mm. At what he "put" vertically (150 mm in height). Go to lag below attached sheet metal (black, thin metal, primed or painted).
Sometimes a manufacturer uses a metal medium thickness (1-2 mm.) Which are hermetically welded (budget module does not apply, because his (metal) at the bottom just do not – there is the bare board). At lags laid floorboards. It may not be surfaced, but without the wane (bark) and treated with a solution ognebiozaschitnym thickness from 25 to 40 mm. It fits neatly together. Above it is laid sheets DSPs (16 mm. Thick) or water-resistant plywood. Other materials (thin dsp, dsp, just plywood is cheaper, but they quickly gain moisture and become unusable). At DSPs fit linoleum. Insulation sex – thick mineral wool laid in accordance with regional estimates of 100 to 250 mm. (Usually 50 mm. Thicker walls) and has a polyethylene vapor barrier. As should be properly and securely? On every element of sex can save – place less often lags – the floor will be a little play but endure, put floor board with a gap – just okay, but it may eventually deform the dsp, or a heavy table leg will fall, for example. You can put a thin sheet of dsp – initially it will not be noticeable, but few months will be visible structure and configuration floorboard under the dsp, and it crumble. Linoleum can be set for 110 rubles – domestic, it is rubbed in places of intense cross-country for a couple of months, and can be Commercial for 290 rubles per meter. Lumber can generally not handle ognebiozaschitoy, because underneath it is not checked. All these moments can easily hide in the preparation of the offer, but I believe they need to know them and describe selectively tested. Up until the opening of sexes is in the final module. The same goes for plumbing – cheap toilets out of order after days of use. Cost and overhead costs for its repair or replacement usually exceed the cost difference when buying the original products more expensive, but the working set.
Ask about prices. Looking for a low cost. Prices for these works are normalized, usually cheaper achieved through the quality of work possible and blunders, as a result of savings on the cycle of control measurements. Clearly express your problem. For example, 'you want to restore land boundaries of this fact, Located there is something belonging to something on the basis of something '. Asked to prepare terms of reference. Read it carefully, pay attention to the list of deliverables.
If you are offered simply to score in the ground stakes – run from them. Do you need an explanatory note on the work performed, the Act for the restoration of borders and the site plan, with a description and fixing points of the rotation angles of the boundaries of land. If financing of operations carried out jointly with the neighbors, specify the number of copies of the deliverables. Have a look at the amount budgeted. If it is not very different from the previously articulated to you, slightly hearken to the composition planned works, feel free to sign and wait for the appointed day, gang specialists, usually 2-3 people.
Do not forget to warn the neighbors. Upon completion, will show you the landmarks, offer to sign a deed of assignment these signs you under the supervision of the safety. Find out how you can restore them by using only one tape, if inadvertently, or someone else's malice of them will be destroyed. Well, if examination will be present and your neighbors – in case of queries can be accessed with the questions to the expert whose opinion will be perceived by all parties as a high official. After receiving the records, eliminating all uncertainty and establishing rapport, you can begin immediately the erection of buildings. Incidentally, it is possible that in the process of surveying you change the original plans, and the fence you which one of parties significantly grow however, possible, and vice versa – decide to restrict the symbolic , or do leave a small stone wall gate – not to wear a barbecue across the street. Live harmoniously!