Popov, in 1895, in the city of Is Petersburgo, and with the accomplishment of the first transmission of signals without wire of up to 2 a thousand meters, for the Italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi in the same year, and that more ahead in 2 of June of 1896, England, its patent of a system of communications without wire, used would register later to transmit and to receive signals in a 3 ray enclosing km from distance, establishing in the following year in the city of London, capital of England, the Company of Telegraph Without Wire, acronym in English Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company.Antes of this, however, in 1893, the priest and scientist gaucho Robert Landell de Moura, as precursory, had carried through> Ana, at the beginning of century XX, for equipment invented for it, as the Transmitter of Waves, and the telephone and telegraph without wire, that would be patented in Brazil in 1901 and the United States of America – U.S.A. in 1904. In 1905, on board the Brazilian battleship Equidab, it carries through diverse experiences with the telegraphy for centelhamento. But not yet a broadcasting sender existed. One gave the first steps for the future invention that would become possible the transmission of the voice human being and other signals, by means of an instrument that if would call Radio.However, she is only in the decade of 20, after 1 World-wide War that the Radio, as an instrument of cultural diffusion, becomes possible with the sprouting of the first sender the North American company Radio Corporation of> America RCA, and later for the Radios National Broadcasting Company NBC and Columbia Broadcasting System CBS, respectively established in 1926 and 1927, until today existing with highest indices of hearing. Meanwhile, they were established in the Europe the Italian Radiotelevisione (RAI), in 1924; the British British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), in 1927, and the Frenchman Radio France International, all operating with great hearings and that they had exerted extraordinary services first to the cause the fascist, and the others two, of the democracy, the human values and the freedom, during 2 World-wide War, spreading out its programs its respective populations, with prominence for the BBC, never leaving of raising the moral state of the British people when the country suffered from the constant bombings of the German Air Force, the time commanded for the nazista regimen.In Brazil, the first Radio only appears in 1936, in the city of Rio De Janeiro, called of National Radio, reaching per two decades, Esso Reporter, leader program of hearing.
When choosing binoculars, first of all, you should decide for what purpose it is needed. Defining property of binoculars – magnification (multiplicity). This ratio is the size of the object in a larger pair of binoculars as to its size, probably the naked eye. Shareware binoculars to increase can be divided into 4 groups: 2-8 times. This opera glasses and a small sports binoculars are small in size and weight, allowing them to wear glasses always with you. For the same reason, you will never find such a pair of binoculars with lenses such as 50mm. Even those that have increased in 8 times, equipped with lenses 25 and a maximum of 30mm. 7.12 times.
Sports and Field Binoculars If we need to recognize remote object, when you're outdoors or in a tourist trip, we just fit binoculars. Increase (magnification) of such binoculars are usually no more than 6.10 times. This is due to several reasons. Firstly, for observations from the hands of the practical limit for optical instruments 10.8 times (at higher magnification, even the slightest hand-shake would be proportionally enhanced optics, and simply will not allow to comfortably observe that, in turn, will very soon tired eyes). Secondly, powerful binoculars, usually have a lot of weight and size, which makes quite a laborious process of observation 'with hands', and for extended wear these binoculars fit enough.
12-15 times. Zoom binoculars and field glasses And something intermediate group of binoculars, they are often used as a lovers 'mobility', and those who watch from a tripod. Here you can select the parameters of the instrument, so to get to the 'gold middle '. To date, these binoculars have become the most popular form appeared on the market models equipped with ZOOM-om (equipped with a special lens moving mechanism, which allows to vary continuously multiplicity), as sometimes These binoculars call of zoom. For example, Binoculars Veber-zoom 7-15×35, with not too much size and weight a little more than pound, will allow us to use it as a sporty pair of binoculars and, if necessary, temporarily change it increased by 15 times to consider the object in more detail. 15-30 times. Stationary and Astronomy binoculars. Typically, this binoculars for stationary observations, most of them equipped with connector for attachment to the tripod with a special adapter. We draw your attention to the fact that some models of Yukon, these adapters are supplied with binoculars. For example, with the Yukon bz 30×50. An example of astronomical binoculars can be a bpc Binoculars 25×100 Veber-astro.
One comments, that according to a recent study, and carried out others in the past, the form as the water is being administered in the West has left a legacy important of problems for the nature. Although the study sample that the citizens of western Europe and the United States or are protected of the threat of the water, the wild life that depends on the water in those regions so or is assured, concludes the investigation It is added to us, that some critics affirm that the study contains certain elements of subjectivity in terms of the form as the different threats from the water are analyzed and combined. Nevertheless, as it indicates to Mark expert water Smith of the Union the International for the Conservation of Naturalize (IUCN), this one is one ” synthesis potentially ponderous” of the knowledge that is had on the problem. And according to Gary Jones, executive president of the Cooperative Center of Investigation of the Water in Canberra, Australia ” it is a very important and opportune global analysis of the joint threats that face the security of the water for humans and the loss of rivers for biodiversity”..
The relative ease of publishing information in the vast Web, supported by examples to follow, sooner or later turns out to many visitors to the web temptation to have your own webpage. If the site owner has a certain tenacity, literacy and good taste, and he definitely has something to say or to show the world and role models originally chosen wisely, the light may well come a worthy and worthwhile web project. A regularly updated site has original content copyright is a good chance of eventually becoming a very popular and bring some fame to its creator. True, this is not always the most often are born too hastily concocted pages, uninformative and poorly decorated. Nevertheless, even the potential authors of quality content that can be interest to a broad audience, not the polls geeks, that quite naturally gives rise to certain difficulties when trying to publish their own materials on the web. Often this is because many people do not think about the external design or compliance with technical requirements. The first question that most acutely concerned about those who first created his life: where to place the site, what hosting to choose? Question, certainly important. But first you need to design a website, at least in general terms.
It is important to remember that everything – and the structure of the menu navigation, and appearance of pages, and finally, the choice of hosting – should be subject to specific content, the content of the site. It is important to properly define and design the future of the site and choose, for example, an advanced web hosting with support for a wide range of technology for a tiny site, it is not justified. Even if no content as such, is vitally important to outline some basic idea of the content itself, the meaning of the site, and ideally – a rough plan for future maintenance.
Sawn timber – it's all sorts of products, from wood, which is widely used in modern construction and repair. Lumber made from various wood species using specialized equipment (four-sided machines, Planers, Grinders, wood drying chambers, cutters, Planers) and are thus an important quality as environmental friendliness. Use timber does not have harmful effects on humans and the environment, so the timber is widely used at sites as industrial and civil use. Lumber is classified by several parameters: the cross-sectional 1.Po parameters are the following lumber – boards, beams and bars. Most often, these standard-size lumber. 2.Po forest type from which the building is made materials, timber is divided into coniferous, deciduous and valuable timber trees. The most common form of lumber – boards and blocks are classified into five quality classes.
Boards are divided by thick – thick – more than 32 mm, and thin – less than 32 mm. These are timber edging and cuticles pushed. The most common type of lumber on the market – this board unedged. The ends of the planks sawdust or sawdust is partially at all. These boards are often used to install flooring or upholstery, that is, in cases where it is hidden under the outer coating, and its appearance is not the principal. Lumber made from hardwoods woods: birch, oak, ash, aspen, maple, have on the structure of high strength, but the weight of such timber is much greater than the mass of lumber from coniferous trees.
However, such timber provide an excellent environment and pleasant aesthetic perception. Softwood lumber are not a lot of weight, but are highly durable and moisture resistant. The most popular softwood lumber – spruce, and it pine. Softwood lumber in the form of bars have 4 varieties. Wooden beams – a log hewn on all four sides, dried in a ventilated area for a long time, the thickness of which exceeds 100 mm. Dry beam is practically not affected by shrinkage, and is suitable for the construction of almost any object. Building a dry timber is the basis for all other types of timber: planed beams, laminated veneer lumber, shaped beam. Glued timber – this timber, which is made by gluing dried and boards. Planed timber – it is modern and practical timber, which is a solid, sawn from logs and timber vystroganny. Shaped beam-beam is strictly defined shape of the section (profile) and the presence of auxiliary elements, optimizing the assembly.
Criterion – a way of comparing alternatives. Necessary to distinguish between the concept of the criterion and the criterion function. As an alternative criterion can be any sign of her, whose value can be fixed in the order or stronger scale. After the test is generated, ie, we find the characteristic that will be used as a basis of comparison of alternatives, it is possible to put the problem of choosing and optimizing. The problem of forming criteria resolved directly after the stated goal of systems analysis. The situation becomes clear if the criteria apply to both quantitative models of qualitative goals. Task system analyst is to formalize a problematic situation that arises in the course of systematic analysis.
This goal as time and serves as a stage in the formation of criteria. Formed criteria in some sense be a substitute goal. From The criterion requires the greatest possible similarity with the objectives to optimize the criteria consistent with closest approach to goals. In fulfilling this stage, it is necessary to recognize that the criteria can not fully coincide with the goals. One reason for this is that the criteria and objectives are formulated in different scales: objectives ratings, criteria in stronger admitting ordering. A criterion is a mapping of values embodied in the order on the parameters of alternatives that allow ordering. Defining the criteria values for this alternative is an indirect measurement of the degree of its suitability as a means to an end. Solving the problem Systems Analysis, a situation arises where it is impossible to propose a criterion to adequately reflect the purpose of the study.
Even one goal can rarely be expressed in one criterion, although this should be pursued. Criterion as and every model is only approximately reflects the purpose, the adequacy of a single criterion may be insufficient. Therefore, the solution may not necessarily looking for a more adequate criterion, it can be expressed in using several criteria, which describe the same goal in different ways and complement each other. Even more complicated problem when formulated several objectives of systems analysis, reflecting the different systems values. In this case, the researcher even more compelled to form several criteria, and subsequently solve the multiobjective problem. Thus, it can be noted that multi-criteria is a way to improve the adequacy of the objective. The criteria must describe if possible, all important aspects of the goal, but it is desirable to minimize the number of required kriteriev.Formirovanie criteria reflects the goal that puts the customer. But in the formulation and solution of problems in system analysis must consider not only the purpose for which it seeks a solution, but also the opportunities that have a hand for the task, and which allow to remove identified problems. The first thing to take into account the resources available to the parties. In formulating the problem of system analysis must also consider the interests of the environment. Environment plays a passive though role, but be aware that any system exists within it, interact with it. Therefore, in formulating the problem of system analysis should follow the principle of do no harm, not to take anything would be contrary to the laws of nature. The main criteria used most frequently in the analysis of complex technical systems. This economic criteria – income, profitability, cost, technical and economic – performance, reliability, durability, technological – out of the product quality specifications, etc.